NOTE: The views expressed here belong to the individual contributors and not to Princeton University or the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.

Thursday, December 1, 2011

Shuttle Shutdown: The future of US space exploration

Madhurita Sengupta, MPA

In January 2004, President Bush announced his Vision for Space Exploration, setting forth executive policy that would send us back to the moon and onto Mars. Though it meant that the end of the Shuttle Program – created in 1981 – was imminent, this promise ignited hope and inspiration in those of us who spent their youths dreaming of “slipping the surly bonds of Earth” (to quote Magee by way of Reagan) and setting foot on extraterrestrial soil, while honoring the legacy of those who’ve made space exploration possible.

And yet, on February 1, 2010, the fabric of our nation’s space program was effectively rewoven, as President Obama announced a new plan for the future of NASA. Constellation, the program that would take us to the moon and onto Mars, was abruptly cancelled. In its place, a crop of commercial efforts would soon be undertaken to ferry US crew and cargo to the International Space Station, effectively freeing resources for NASA to concentrate on developing the next generation of launch and crew vehicles and advanced technologies for future missions. In the meantime, as predicted, the shuttle program officially ended in August of this year, one month after the final flight of the space shuttle Atlantis. (Currently, without a shuttle program, the Russian Soyuz vehicle is our sole mode of transportation to the Space Station, for which the US pays on the order of $60M per seat.)

Many protested Obama’s radically different plan and today, a year and a half after that announcement, NASA sits at a pivotal juncture – one that will determine the future of our nation’s human spaceflight program. The recently passed FY12 budget promised the agency $17B for the fiscal year (which equates to roughly $0.005 per taxpayer), but NASA remains at an impasse. In this budget, Congress has not only cut funding to the commercial efforts, but also attached conditions to this funding contingent on progress made in the development of the next generation launch/crew vehicle, effectively forcing NASA to extend the schedules of both programs, or prematurely choose one commercial provider over another.

Regardless of funding allocations, we, as a nation, now have the opportunity to set the course for the future of human space exploration. Never before has NASA been faced with such apathy and lack of support and funding; and yet, it presents the agency and the nation with a challenge to overcome. How can NASA prove to the administration, Congress, the American public, our international partners, and the rest of the world that it is truly capable of pioneering the future of human spaceflight? Moreover, how can NASA demonstrate that investments in science and technology today are apt to yield dividends of various magnitudes for years to come?

Since the inception of the US human spaceflight program, countless individuals have devoted their livelihoods to further the cause of exploration, to test the limits of mankind’s knowledge and experience, and to expand the boundaries of our terrestrial existence. NASA has been, is, and forever will remain an agency of people who believe in space exploration. It is a collective group of passionate, dedicated workers who are inspired by the contributions of spaceflight to humanity. It is men and women who were awed by Sputnik, by Neil Armstrong’s first steps, by the first joint Russian-American venture in space, by the space shuttle’s maiden voyage, by the building of the International Space Station, piece by piece, before our eyes and who are still inspired on a daily basis by the feats that they themselves help accomplish. They are motivated by man’s innate desire to achieve the impossible, to paraphrase Kennedy, not because it is easy, but because it is hard.

Our nation now has the opportunity to draw on all of our many impressive years of experience and inspire others to not only marvel at our ingenuity and initiative, but to contribute and invest in it. With the end of the shuttle program, we now stand at a crossroads, at which we are fortunate to have the opportunity to honor those who have given their lives to help mankind escape the gravitational bonds that have tethered us to this lustrous planet for centuries, and explore the recesses of the unknown, bit by bit, in order to understand, appreciate, and provide for our species. No matter what path we ultimately take, let us not forget that we are all passionate about many common things; let us not ignore our inner child, who declared his/her desire to become an astronaut at age eight; and all the while, let us honor the legacies of the past, by embracing the possibilities and potential of the future. We owe those who have sacrificed their lives for the advancement of mankind, who accomplished seemingly impossible tasks, at the very least, that much.

17 comments:

  1. I grew up wanting to be an astronaut, but I really don't see what manned space flight offers to justify its exorbitant cost, especially when compared to unmanned missions. It's particularly strange to bemoan the death of the space program only a few days after the launch of Curiosity, an unusually ambitious unmanned mission that has decent odds to show the presence of microbial life on Mars. If manned space travel is really so valuable, on the other hand, then private ventures like the SpaceX corporation will succeed.

    The manned space program was, clearly, the most inspiring and positive of the ways in which the US and the Soviet Union vied with one another in the last century. In addition to its immediate scientific benefit and the spinoff value of its technologies, it was undoubtedly a contributor to making scientific discovery and science education a more central part of our public culture and national discourse. But the fact that it once served this role does not mean it is the only means of doing so. We should take inspiration from the manned space program: it reminds us of the power of public investment joined with technological innovation. But the time for spending billions of dollars to blast people into orbit has past.

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  2. Jacob -

    Let me first start by addressing your point on timing - most of the content of this was written soon after I finished working the last Shuttle mission at NASA, before I came to Princeton. My sentiments reflect those of many of my colleagues and friends who've worked tirelessly to make human spaceflight thrive at NASA. In no way do I discount the contributions that the Mars Science Laboratory will bring to many scientific communities worldwide, and that was most definitely not my intent in submitting this piece this week (in fact, I owed a post to the editor weeks ago, well before Curiosity even took off for Mars). However, I think you will agree that it's appropriate and very natural to recognize something that has been not only a fabric of our nation, but in the souls of each and every person involved with the Shuttle Program from day one (and that's not a melodramatic statement in the slightest).

    As to your other points, while I agree that the magnitude of the progress that has been achieved since the Apollo program is no way in proportion to those years when we worked to land man on the Moon, I absolutely do not agree that there is no justification to human spaceflight. In a time when our nation is sorely lacking in contributions to the international scientific community, I see the rallying behind a common technological goal as a means to spur the same magnitude of scientific and technological progress that we saw during the Apollo days. There is absolutely no doubt in my mind that, if undertaken, a feat such as sending humans to the Moon or Mars could spur the drive to develop new technologies, lead to as-yet-unknown scientific breakthroughs, and just as importantly, inspire a new generation of scientists, engineers, and explorers.

    As to your point about companies such as SpaceX - I agree. There's a whole crop of commercial ventures out there who are working to open the market up, and they're getting a chance to prove that it can be done in the coming years. The whole point behind the commercial crew program at NASA is to help these companies succeed in getting people into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), so that NASA can free up resources to concentrate on developing new technologies that have practical implications in your every day life. There are things out there that remain to be discovered, new technology waiting to be created. We should not lull ourselves into a false sense of security and complacency in thinking that we shouldn't be striving to do everything in our power as a nation to be pioneers in these discoveries. I see human spaceflight as a tool in that process.

    And lastly, billions of dollars may be spent to "blast people into orbit," but I'd urge you to take a look at NASA budgets compared to many of the other places government funding goes. It's an enlightening revelation when you think of just how small of a percentage (< 1%) of the federal budget goes to spurring on technology and scientific discoveries. If we, as a nation, are keen to turn our backs to such organizations, in hopes of investing in more short-term dividend yielding ventures, then we're in a boatload of trouble in the long run, and when we realize it, it will be much too late to do anything about it.

    - Madi

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  3. Well written. I'd even argue that the NASA budget is important for more than just space travel. Numerous technological innovations have originated through NASA funding, many of which have found their way into consumer products and thus increased the U.S. standard of living demonstrably over the past few decades. For example, many of the key robotics technologies evident in consumer and medical products were first developed at NASA, including 360-degree photography rendering and polymer coating material for implantable therapy devices treating for patients experiencing heart failure. So cutting funding for NASA is more than just about crushing the hopes and dreams of aspiring astronauts; it's also about crushing the hopes and dreams of technological improvement and economic prosperity.

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  4. my name is Clark diana and am from USA, I want to use this opportunity to thank my great Doctor ZATO who really made my life a pleasurable one today. This great man Dr ZATO brought my husband back to me, i had two lovely kids for my husband, about four years ago i and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me for one lady. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. I tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, until one day i met a good friend of mine that was also in a situation like me but her problem was her ex-boyfriend who she had an unwanted pregnancy for and he refused to take responsibility and dumped her. she told me that mine was a small case and that i should not worry about it at all, so i asked her what was the solution to my problems and she gave me this great man’s email address. zatolovespell@gmail.com I was doubting if this man was the solution, so i contacted this great man and he told me what to do and i deed them all, he told me to wait for just 48 hours and that my husband will come crawling on his kneels just for forgiveness so i faithfully did what this great man asked me to do and for sure after 48 hours i heard a knock on the door, in a great surprise i saw him on his kneels and i was speechless, when he saw me, all he did was crying and asking me for forgiveness, from that day, all the pains and sorrows in my heart flew away, since then i and my husband and our lovely kids are happy, that’s why i want to say a big thank you to Dr ZATO LOVE SPELL. This great man made me to understand that there is no problem on earth that has no solution so please if you know that you have this same problem or any problem that is similar, i will advise you to come straight to this great man. You can email him at: zatolovespell@gmail.com



    ReplyDelete
  5. my name is Clark diana and am from USA, I want to use this opportunity to thank my great Doctor ZATO who really made my life a pleasurable one today. This great man Dr ZATO brought my husband back to me, i had two lovely kids for my husband, about four years ago i and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me for one lady. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. I tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, until one day i met a good friend of mine that was also in a situation like me but her problem was her ex-boyfriend who she had an unwanted pregnancy for and he refused to take responsibility and dumped her. she told me that mine was a small case and that i should not worry about it at all, so i asked her what was the solution to my problems and she gave me this great man’s email address. zatolovespell@gmail.com I was doubting if this man was the solution, so i contacted this great man and he told me what to do and i deed them all, he told me to wait for just 48 hours and that my husband will come crawling on his kneels just for forgiveness so i faithfully did what this great man asked me to do and for sure after 48 hours i heard a knock on the door, in a great surprise i saw him on his kneels and i was speechless, when he saw me, all he did was crying and asking me for forgiveness, from that day, all the pains and sorrows in my heart flew away, since then i and my husband and our lovely kids are happy, that’s why i want to say a big thank you to Dr ZATO LOVE SPELL. This great man made me to understand that there is no problem on earth that has no solution so please if you know that you have this same problem or any problem that is similar, i will advise you to come straight to this great man. You can email him at: zatolovespell@gmail.com



    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  7. I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for Herpes or any cure for herpes,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how Dr SUKU prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the herpes the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain, and i have just went for text last week and the doctor confirmed that there is no trace of any herpes system on my body. Glory be to God for leading me to this genuine to Dr SUKU I am so happy as i am sharing this testimony. My advice to you all who thinks that their is no cure for herpes that is Not true ,just contact him and get cure from Dr SUKU for your HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS and you will be free and free forever, Try it and you will not regret it because it truly works. One thing i have come to realize is that you never know how true it is until you try. There is no harm in trying. Remember, delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email: greatsukusolutiontemple@hotmail.com Contact him and be free from herpes!thank you for you help me to cure my (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) am so grateful to you Dr SUKU make god bless you for you work done.i advice you contact him and get cure on time is real to help you to cure you herpes he have help me too his vie email:
    greatsukusolutiontemple@hotmail.com
    or call his Mobil number:+234874839242..

    ReplyDelete
  8. I never believed in spell casting but After 6 years of dating my ex lover, I still imagine how Dr Ofemo brought my ex lover back to me in just 24 hour. No one could have ever made me believe that there is a real spell caster that really work. am Kate by name,I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real on line spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr Ofemo, He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my ex lover who left me, When i contacted Dr Ofemo he cast a love spell for me and my ex lover who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me. he is back now with so much love and caring. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers of bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my lover,and the most surprise,is that our love is very strong,every day is happiness and joy. and there is nothing like been with the man you love.i am so happy my love is back to me with the help of Dr.Ofemo if you have similar problem i will advice you to contact him ,he is there to help you and put a smile on your face ask he did to me and others. his email: drofemospelltemple@gmail.com or his hot line:+2348163387496 You can contact him Via this email:drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or
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    ReplyDelete
  9. I never believed in spell casting but After 6 years of dating my ex lover, I still imagine how Dr Ofemo brought my ex lover back to me in just 24 hour. No one could have ever made me believe that there is a real spell caster that really work. am Kate by name,I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real on line spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr Ofemo, He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my ex lover who left me, When i contacted Dr Ofemo he cast a love spell for me and my ex lover who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me. he is back now with so much love and caring. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers of bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my lover,and the most surprise,is that our love is very strong,every day is happiness and joy. and there is nothing like been with the man you love.i am so happy my love is back to me with the help of Dr.Ofemo if you have similar problem i will advice you to contact him ,he is there to help you and put a smile on your face ask he did to me and others. his email: drofemospelltemple@gmail.com or his hot line:+2348163387496 You can contact him Via this email:drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or
    his web/site http://greatofemospelltemple.webs.com/ contact him now website: http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Am Stella Dickson,i want to share my wonderful testimony on how i got back my Husband of my life back,i want to tell the people in the world there is a real spell caster online and is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr.Ofemo spell caster, He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my Husband who dumped me, When i contacted Dr.Ofemo he cast a love spell for me and my Husband who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me.To anyone who is reading this article and needs any help Dr Ofemo can also offer any types of help like Reuniting of marriage and relationship, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell,we are now very much happy with our self.Dr.Ofemo make him to realize how much we love and need each other.This man is for real and for good.he can also help you to fix your broken relationship. I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage counseling, and we’re doing very,very well,in our love life.contact:drofemospelltemple@gmail.com or his web/site http://greatofemospelltemple.webs.com/ i know he will still solve your problem as well email via drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or his web/site: http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo or cell number +2348163387496

    ReplyDelete
  11. Am Stella Dickson,i want to share my wonderful testimony on how i got back my Husband of my life back,i want to tell the people in the world there is a real spell caster online and is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr.Ofemo spell caster, He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my Husband who dumped me, When i contacted Dr.Ofemo he cast a love spell for me and my Husband who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me.To anyone who is reading this article and needs any help Dr Ofemo can also offer any types of help like Reuniting of marriage and relationship, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell,we are now very much happy with our self.Dr.Ofemo make him to realize how much we love and need each other.This man is for real and for good.he can also help you to fix your broken relationship. I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage counseling, and we’re doing very,very well,in our love life.contact:drofemospelltemple@gmail.com or his web/site http://greatofemospelltemple.webs.com/ i know he will still solve your problem as well email via drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or his web/site: http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo or cell number +2348163387496..

    ReplyDelete
  12. i am so happy to share my testimony on how i was able to get back my ex lover around September 2015 with the help of Dr. Ofemo since 5 year ago, I almost gave up trying to get my ex lover back to commit to our relationship fully. I had tried the whole lot I knew, but what I DIDN'T know was that all I had to do was come to you Dr. Ofemo, and with your blessings and extraordinary magic powers, I wouldn't have to do all the work at all. you did your magic, and immediately after 24 hours, my lover came back to me with lots of apologies and flowers.. And now my life is balanced and happy again. Dr. Ofemo is a real and genuine spell caster he help me restore back my broken relationship. You do a great service to people, You are talented with spell to bring back ex lover and many more. Thank you for weaving your magic love spells for me. She is back just the way it was when we first met,his email address:drofemospelltempl@gmail.com it was all like a dream to me, i am so happy now as we are back together again thanks to Dr. Ofemo and i will advice anyone in need of help to contact him via email: drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or his cell number +2348163387496 his web/site http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo

    ReplyDelete
  13. i am so happy to share my testimony on how i was able to get back my ex lover around September 2015 with the help of Dr. Ofemo since 5 year ago, I almost gave up trying to get my ex lover back to commit to our relationship fully. I had tried the whole lot I knew, but what I DIDN'T know was that all I had to do was come to you Dr. Ofemo, and with your blessings and extraordinary magic powers, I wouldn't have to do all the work at all. you did your magic, and immediately after 24 hours, my lover came back to me with lots of apologies and flowers.. And now my life is balanced and happy again. Dr. Ofemo is a real and genuine spell caster he help me restore back my broken relationship. You do a great service to people, You are talented with spell to bring back ex lover and many more. Thank you for weaving your magic love spells for me. She is back just the way it was when we first met,his email address:drofemospelltempl@gmail.com it was all like a dream to me, i am so happy now as we are back together again thanks to Dr. Ofemo and i will advice anyone in need of help to contact him via email: drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or his cell number +2348163387496 his web/site http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo.

    ReplyDelete
  14. My Name is Sonia Davis from U.S.A, i want to share a live testimony on how DR Ofemo was able to bring my husband back to me,I have been rejected by my husband after five years of marriage just because another woman had a spell on him and he left me and the kid to suffer.I tried all my possible means to get him back to me but it all seems to be in vain, So one day i saw a testimony on the internet about DR Ofemo how he helped Stephen to get his lover back, although i didn't believe in love spell, i contacted him because i loved my husband so so much and i want him back, So DR Ofemo performed the love spell and told me to wait for just 48 hours which i did, So surprisingly, My husband sent me an apologizing Text and he started begging me, from that day, we became together and up till now, We are in love with each other like never before.Today my family is back again and we are happy living fine and healthy, with DR Ofemo all my dream came through in reuniting my marriage,i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my husband.his email via drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com or his cell number +2348163387496 kindly contact him now;drofemospelltemple@gmail.com his web/site http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo

    ReplyDelete
  15. Hello every body
    My Name is john smith from Port Land .I will love to share my testimony to all the people in the forum course i never thought i will have my girlfriend back and she means so much to me..The girl i want to get marry to left me 4 weeks to our wedding for another man..,When i called her she never picked my calls,She deleted me on her face book and she changed her
    face book status from engage to Single...when i went to her place of work she told her boss she never want to see me..I lost my job as a result of this cos i cant get myself anymore,my life was upside down and everythin did not go smooth with my life...I tried all i could do to have her back to all did not work out until i met a Man when i Travel to Africa to execute some business have been developing some years back..I told him my problem and all have passed through in getting her back and how i lost my job...he told me he is going to help me...i don't believe that in the first place.but he swore he will help me out and he told me the reason why my girlfriend left me and also told me some hidden secrets.i was amazed when i heard that from him..he said he will cast a spell for me and i will see the results in the next couple of days..then i travel back to Germany the following day and i called him when i got home and he said he's busy casting those spells and he has bought all the materials needed for the spells,he said am gonna see positive results in the next 2 days that is
    Thursday...My girlfriend called me at exactly 3:15pm on Thursday and apologies for all she had done ..she said,she never knew what she's doing and her sudden behavior was not intentional and she promised not to do that again.it was like am dreaming when i heard that from her and when we ended the call,i called the man and told him my my girl friend called and he said i haven't seen anything yet... he said i will also get my job back in days time..and when its Sunday,they called me at my place of work that i should resume work on Monday and they gonna compensate me for the time limit i have spent at home without working..My life is back into shape,i have my girlfriend back and we are happily married now with a baby boy and i have my job back too.This man is really powerful..if we have up to 20 people like him in the world,the world would have been a better place..he has also helped many of my friends to solve many problems and they are all happy now..Am posting this to the forum for anybody that is interested in meeting the man for help.you can mail him on spiritualherbalisthealers@gmail.com I can;t give out his number cos he told me he don't want to be disturbed by many people across the world..he said his email is okay and he also have a web site if you want to visit him there' he will replied to any emails asap..hope he helped u out too..good luck. Dr Zuma zuk of spiritualherbalisthealers@gmail.com is
    a great man..

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  16. HOW I GET MY EX BACK
    Read my testimony!!! my husband took the case to court for a divorce. he said that he never wanted to stay with me again,and that he didn’t love me anymore.So he packed out of the house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get him back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and he confirmed it that he has made his decision,and he never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my husband .So i explained every thing to him,so he told me that the only way i can get my husband back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for him too(wining lottery) .So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow his advice. Then he gave me the email address of the spell caster whom he contacted, So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address he gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my husband back the next day.What an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my husband who didn’t call me for the past seven 9 months,gave me a call to inform me that he was coming back.So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster. So, i will advice you out there if you have any problem contact Prophet Dr Ahmed utimate he is real and always ready to help you solve your problem
    E-mail him on: Ahmedutimate@gmail.com
    whatsapp number +2348160153829

    (melody davis UK)

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  17. I am very happy today because i never thought i would be able to leave up till this day.i am Benson Tanaka from Zimbabwe i was infected with h i v by my wife who later died of it and this disease has been with me for the past 6 years now i have gone to several hospitals to seek for cures but all they give to me are some drugs which has taking almost all my savings i had,i was on Facebook on Saturday morning then there was an health group which i was asked to join by a friend immediately after i joined it i saw some post of people giving tanks to this doctor that he has cured them of their hiv disease i was so surprised about this i collected the doctors contact and i thought of it for about 5 good days then i concluded in giving him a try because there was no harm in trying.when i contacted doctor prince he tolled me he was going to prepare an herbal medicine for me which i was going to take for 2 weeks and after that i should go for a test at any of the hospital,after i did every thing which he asked me to do i received the medicine the next two days from a courier company which i started taking immediately after about a week plus i felt some strange moves in me,i felt like i was getting better when i completed the medicine i went for a test at the Bulawayo Central Hospital were i was tested (-)negative i thought i was dreaming i went for another test at the St anne's hospital it was still the same then i believed i was really free from this disease today i have got-in a new job and i am also married to a beautiful wife all tanks to doctor prince here is his contact details for any one who is passing true any kind of sickness or disease he will be willing to help you too.dr.princearataabraham@gmail.com you can also call or whatsapp him on +2348163241499

    ReplyDelete